Imam Ali’s Pure Divine Knowledge and Perspective on Well-Being

WHAT YOU SEEK IS WITHIN YOU. IMAM ALi your sickness is from you, but you do not perceive it and your remedy is with you but you do not sense it. You presume you are a small entity, but within you is enfolded the entire universe. You are indeed the evident book, by whose alphabets the hidden becomes manifest. Therefore you have no need to look beyond yourself. What you seek is with you, if you only reflect.

#johnmaxwell #money #confidence #success #mindfulness #mindful #s #sale #sales #business #problem #emotional #motivational #motivation #motivationmonday #motivationalspeaker #success #bad advice #good advice #advice #successmindset #mindsetquotes #conference #publicspeaking
#garyvee #tailopez #meekmill #grantcardone #honesty #amazing

Wassim Bazzi

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How Those Incredible #Interpreters Do It | #Psychology Today

How Those Incredible Interpreters Do It

Part 2: A freelance language interpreter tells us about his profession.

Posted Apr 30, 2019

Interview conducted by François Grosjean

I have always been fascinated by language interpreters. I wrote in the teaser of my first post on the topic that we often take the work of interpreters for granted, and yet they accomplish one of the most difficult linguistic tasks humans can undertake. They are special bilinguals par excellence. Several years have gone by since that post and what better way to come back to it than to find out about the profession by interviewing an interpreter. Iain Whyte, who heads an interpreting and translation agency in the Paris region, grew up speaking both English and French. He has been active all of his life as a language professional, be it in the written or the spoken modality, and has very kindly accepted to answer my questions.

In what way did growing up bilingual and bicultural help you become a professional interpreter?

I was born in India of a French mother and a British father, and lived there for about nine years. My parents used the one person-one language approach and when we left, I was fully bilingual, although slightly more dominant in English due to my English schooling there. I then spent the next ten years in boarding schools in England but lived in France four months of the year where my parents had settled.

I went to university in France, first Paris Nanterre University and then Sciences Po, the Paris based research university in the social sciences, and had no problem fitting in. The grounding I received there in politics and economics, and my fluency in my two languages, were a good starting point to provide translating and simultaneous interpreting services to business corporations, NGOs, local governments, and so on.

We have all seen photos of interpreters in booths or at the back of conference rooms doing simultaneous interpretation. What is involved and how difficult is it?

It involves interpreting what a person is saying in real time, that is, as the person is speaking. It requires a high degree of concentration, which explains why we work in teams of two or three, each team-member doing a 20- to 30-minute shift before handing over to a colleague. You have to get used to speaking and listening at the same time, a skill you gain through practice and experience. It calls for concision and clarity of expression, as well as synthesizing and analytical skills. Obviously, being specialized in the topic or area of expertise involved is a necessity.

What other aspects of simultaneous interpretation are special?

You have to be quick at finding equivalences for expressions and sayings. You have to keep up with the speaker no matter how fast he or she speaks, and identifying in part with the speaker is important. One of the most difficult challenges is interpreting jokes, whose power often lies in a play on words which is difficult or sometimes impossible to render in another language.

Can you explain what consecutive interpreting is and how it is done?

During consecutive interpreting, the speaker stops every 1–5 minutes, usually at the end of a “paragraph” or complete thought, and the interpreter then steps in to render what was said into the target language. A key skill involved is note-taking, since few people can memorize a full paragraph in one hearing without loss of detail. Many professional interpreters develop their own “ideogramic” symbols, which allows them to take down not the words but the thoughts of the speaker in a sort of language-independent form.

Consecutive interpreting is more laborious than simultaneous interpreting as it slows the proceeding down. All participants in a meeting have to wait for the interpreter to stop speaking before they can resume their exchange. In addition, for those who understand both languages, source and target, it means hearing the discourse twice.

What is whispered interpreting (chuchotage) and how is it different from the above?

Whispered interpreting is the same as simultaneous interpreting but it does away with any equipment such as a booth, microphone, and headset. The interpreter sits next to his/her client(s) and literally whispers the interpreted message.

Many interpreters have a source and a target language (e.g. English into French). Is that your case or do you interpret as easily in both directions?

Because of my family background and linguistic experience as a child, I’m able to interpret as easily in both directions. This sometimes gives me a competitive advantage over others, particularly when clients don’t know into which language (e.g. English or French) the interpretation will be required.

How do you prepare yourself before taking on an interpreting job?

First of all, I accept interpreting assignments only in my domains of expertise. In addition, my clients usually provide me with preparatory material such as presentations, PowerPoint slides, reading lists, speaker profiles, statistics, and so on. I also make a point of keeping abreast of the latest developments in my areas of expertise by reading the generalist and specialist press.

Some speakers are easier to interpret than others. Can you tell us what aspects of speech output facilitate your task?

The speaker’s rate of speech flow is important: it mustn’t be too slow or too fast! In fact, we interpreters have the same concerns as ordinary listeners regarding the clarity, pace and quality of the speaker’s discourse. The speaker’s ability to summarize his or her thoughts clearly and concisely from time-to-time is also much appreciated.

With the advent of modern communication technology (video and voice interaction over the web), how has your job changed?

We can now interpret meetings online without having to travel, and we can do so at any time of the day and night, e.g. interpret a speech by Donald Trump given at 2 a.m. French time (8 p.m. US time). And during conferences and events, our interpreting also benefits people who are not physically present in the same venue.

Tell us about the work you do for France 24, the international news and current affairs television network based in Paris?

It involves interpreting during live radio or TV broadcasts while the event is actually taking place (state ceremonies/visits, parliamentary debates, speeches, etc.). It also involves interpreting pre-recorded material, notably interviews with celebrities, politicians, and so on. It requires good background knowledge of international and domestic politics and of the personalities involved. Round-the-clock availability and quick responsiveness to ongoing events is also necessary.

You have also interpreted for politicians including former French President François Hollande and current President Emmanuel Macron. How stressful is it?

It is no more stressful than interpreting “ordinary” people, but we are clearly aware of the risk of causing a faux pasor even a diplomatic incident if we use the wrong terms and generate misunderstandings.

Finally, what is an interpreting nightmare you have?

My worst nightmare is a speaker who thinks he/she is speaking clearly but is, in fact, not clear at all. These are the kind of moments when you have to be creative and give a semblance of sense to something that is devoid of meaning. Fortunately, this happens rarely!
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/life-bilingual/201904/how-those-incredible-interpreters-do-it

Verbatim Reporting #6thMoUConference

Click to see the Tweet

Verbatim Reporting is editing and translating the spoken word…Skills that go into creating a verbatim record are translation, Editing and fact-checking

Jese Browner, Chief of English Verbatim Reporting Section, #UNHQ

Tweets on the 6th Conference of UN Memorandum with universities

#6thMoUConference

See also

Verbatim Reporting requires transcribing and paying attention to tone, purpose and intention so that it sounds naturally neutral.

Verbatim Reporting requires shift in focus: you focus on one topic in the morning and shift to another in the afternoon. (Daily work at UN)

ALao check #MontereyForum2019 tweets on interpretation.

The outcome of the conference:

Click to see the tweet

Click to see the tweet

I pledge I recite the Holy Quran in the blessed month of Ramadan

God Willing, I pledge I recite the Holy Quran in the blessed month of Ramadan.
I recommend this translation into #English by Ali Quli Qarai. The best natural flow of Quranic verses in English I have ever read.
You may search: The Holy Quran Phrase by Phrase Ali Quli Qarai or click here to get the #PDF.
Please, like the post if you will read it this month starting from Tuesday. One chapter a day. We will include your name in our intention while reading. Our utmost supplication and this collective recitation is dedicated for the arrival of Imam al Mahdi as World is waiting for Justice and Justice is waiting for Imam Mahdi (A.S.) and we every human from all folks of life need him to come along with Prophet Isa to correct the path of #humanity. #ShareHumanity #Justice

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://zawaar786.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/phrase-by-phrase-quran-with-english-translation-by-ali-quli-qarai.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiYlL_DjvvhAhUN4OAKHVxBDjAQFjADegQIARAB&usg=AOvVaw2cpZjS0RV5_PRsYUDQMm74

كيفية كتابة الهمزة في اللغة العربية ~ صحيفة اللغة العربية

كيفية كتابة الهمزة في اللغة العربية

اللغة العربية هي أصعب اللغات في العالم من حيث تعلمها لأنها مليئة بالقواعد النحوية، والهمزة في اللغة العربية لها مكانة خاصة لأنها أنواع مختلفة وكل منه له طريقته في الكتابة وله إعرابه، ولهذا سوف نستعرض معكم كيفية كتابة الهمزة في اللغة العربية.

محتويات
الهمزة
الهمزة هي الشكل الحركي الذي يوضع على حروق العلة ليغير نطق الحرف، ومنها أنواع مثل؛ همزة القطع، همزة الوصل، والهمزة المتوسطة، والهمزة المتطرفة.
تختلف طريقة كتابة الهمزات على حسب موقع الكلمة، وهذه الاختلافات لها ضوابط معينة كما سوف نوضح.
1-همزة القطع
همزة القطع هي الهمزة التي تكتب فوق الألف وفي أول الكلمة وهي تكتب في حالتين :
-لو كانت فوق الألف فهي تكتب مفتوحة أو مضمومة مثل؛ أكمل، وأحمد.
أنواع همزة القطع
-همزة القطع التي تكون في بداية الكلام وهي التي تكتب فوق حرف الألف في حالة الضم أو الفتح، وتكتب تحت الألف في حالة الكسر.
2-همزة الوصل
همزة الوصل هي الهمزة التي تلفظ عند البدء في الكلام وهي تسقط عند الوصل، ومن أبرز الأمثلة على همزة الوصل؛ استعمال، استلام، استغفار.
من أبرز الأماكن التي ترد فيها همزة الوصل في الفعل الثلاثي، الماضي، لفعل الخماسي، الفعل السداسي، الأمر، المصادر، (ال) التعريف، الأسماء العشرة.
يمكن أن نفرق بين همزة القطع وهمزة الوصل من خلال إدخال حرف الواو أو حرف الفاء قبل الكلمة، فإذا نطقت الهمزة كانت همزة قطع، أما إذا لم تنطق فكان ذلك دليل على أنها همزة وصل.
مواقع همزة الوصل
– فعل الأمر الثلاثي، مثال ذلك: اقرأ.
– الفعل الماضي الخماسي والسّداسي والأمر منهما ومصدرهما، مثال ذلك: استمع- اِستمع- استماع -استنجد- استنجِد- استنجاد.
-عند إضافة (ال)ـ التعريف: المدرسة، القمر، الشمس، النور، الظلام وغيرها.
– الأسماء العشرة وهي: اسم، وابن، وابنة، واثنان، واثنتان، وامرؤ، وامرأة، وايمن الله، وايم الله.
3- قواعد كتابة الهمزة المتوسطة
-تكتب الهمزة المتوسطة عل نبرة لو كانت مكورة مهما كان الحرف الذي قبلها أو مهما كانت حركتها مثل؛ عائم، فئة، بيئات.
-تكتب الهمزة على الألف في حالة ما إذا كانت مفتوحة وسبقت بحرف مفتوح، أو في حالة ما إذا كانت مفتوحة وسبقت بحرف ساكن أو حرف مفتوح، ومن الأمثلة على ذلك زأر، مرأة، تأزم.
-تكتب الهمزة على السطر لو سبقت بحرف ساكن وانت هي نفسها همزة مفتوحة أو كانت مضمومة أو مفتوحة وسبقت بحرف الواو الساكن، ومن أمثلة ذلك ملاءمة، نبوءة.
الهمزة المتوسطة تأخذ عدة أشكال:
-منفردة على السطر: وتكتب الهمزة منفردةً على السطر إذا جاءت مَفتوحة وتسبقها ألف، أو إذا جاءت مفتوحة وسبقها حرف الواو.
مثال: قِراءة، مقروءة.
– على الألف: يكتب هذا النوع من الهمزة على الألف إذا جاءتْ مفتوحة وكان ما قبلها مفتوحاً أو ساكناً، كما أنها تُكتب على الألف إذا جاءت ساكنةً وسبقها حرف مفتوح.
– على الواو: وتكتب الهمزة على واو في الحالات التالية: إذا جاءت الهمزة مضمومة وسبقها حرفٌ ساكنٌ.
مثال: كلمة مسؤول.
– إذا جاءت الهمزة مضمومة وسبقها حرف مفتوح.
-إذا جاءت الهمزة مضمومة وسبقها حرف مضموم أيضاً.
-إذا كانت الهمزة ساكنة وسبقها حرف مضموم.
-إذا كانت الهمزة مفتوحة وسبقها حرف مضموم.
4-الهمزة المتطرفة
تكتب على الياء إن سبقت بحرف مكسور كما في مبتدئ.
تكتب على الواو إن سبقت بحرف مضموم كما في لؤلؤ.
تكتب على الألف إن سبقت بحرف مفتوح كما في يلجأ.
تكتب على السطر إن سبقت إمّا بحرف ساكن أو بحرف مد (الألف، أو الواو، أو الياء) كما في: بدء، ضياء.
الفرق بين همزة القطع وهمزة الوصل
هنا بعض الطرق التي يمكن على أي شخص معرفة ما إذا كانت هذه الهمزة همزة قطع أم همزة وصل وهي:
-أن كلمة إذا هنا تعتبر همزة قطع لأن لو أدخلنا عليها حرف الفاء فسوف تقرأ إذا لا غير في النطق فتصيح فإذا.
-أما بالنسبة لفعل الأمر (اعمل) هي همزة وصل وذلك لأنه بعد أن ندخل عليها حرف الواو سوف يحتفي لفظ الهمزة من سياق الكلام.

http://www.arabiclanguageic.org/view_page.php?id=12681